Understanding Menopause and its Symptoms

What is Menopause? Simply put, it is the transition period that occurs after a woman has finished having her menstrual cycle. Menopause typically begins between 40 and 58 years old in developed nations, where the median age is 51 years old. For some, it may happen earlier because of a diagnosis or medical complication. However, for many women, menopause comes as a natural part of aging. After several years of regular fertility cycles, the woman is considered to be menopausal, and her body will no longer produce an abundance of estrogen.

There are several indications that you might be experiencing menopause, and your doctor can run a series of tests to determine whether or not you are one. One of these tests involves the analysis of your cervical mucus. In this test, the doctor will look for changes in color and texture, and consistency. These changes will provide clues as to your hormonal status, as well as how advanced the menopause symptoms are. Your doctor may also take blood tests to confirm their findings, although, in the United States, the results of these tests have to be interpreted by a board-certified doctor.

Some other signs that you may be experiencing menopause include hot flashes, night sweats, palpitations, and high blood pressure. Because hot flashes are characterized by rapidly increasing temperature and heart rate, they can be frightening and unpleasant. Many women find that staying cool and comfortable is essential to help them deal with hot flashes and other related symptoms. In addition, many women find that when they consume especially spicy or acidic foods, these ingredients make their hot flashes even worse.

If you are experiencing any of these problems, you should see your doctor as quickly as possible to determine the cause of your perimenopause symptoms. Most of these symptoms are attributed to hormonal imbalances, such as large amounts of estrogen and testosterone. For example, if you experience night sweats and hot flashes, you may have begun menopause because your estrogen levels had dropped below the normal range. On the other hand, if your night sweats are excessive, this could indicate that your estrogen has begun to react with your progesterone, which in turn causes vaginal dryness. Some women find that natural perimenopause remedies involving diet, exercise, and regular sleeping patterns help reduce their symptoms considerably.

During perimenopause, which often occurs around middle age, some women will begin to experience irregular menstrual cycles or no periods at all, while others will have heavy menstrual flow. Other symptoms can include mood swings, depression, anxiety, heart palpitations, and headaches. Also, some women experience sudden hair loss, vaginal dryness, or thinning skin, which can be attributed to their perimenopause. These symptoms are caused by fluctuations in hormones throughout the perimenopause period.

Menopause can last for several years, although it tends to last a lot longer in some women. Around six months after one’s last period, one should be able to tell when one has gone through menopause. This benchmark does not necessarily mean that the perimenopause symptoms have entirely disappeared, however. Women who experience hot flashes around three or four months after their last period are often unsure about what this means, mainly since these flashes usually occur several years after one’s last menstruation. Usually, it is safe to conclude that one is experiencing perimenopause if they experience severe hot flashes and have had those cycles for at least six months.

Postpartum Visit: Overview, Benefits, and Expected Results

Definition & Overview

The postpartum period, usually the first six weeks after delivery, is critical in the mother’s physical and mental health. After nine months of carrying the baby inside her belly and undergoing physical and mental changes, and then going through the stress of delivery, returning to a non-pregnant state can be demanding. There’s also the additional pressure of looking after the newly born child.

Women are prone to various disorders during this period, such as postpartum depression and infections, especially if they required a vaginal incision or a C-section to help them deliver the baby. Therefore, doctors recommend that the mother undergo a postpartum visit or consultation 4-6 weeks after delivery.

The purpose of the consultation is to assess the mother’s physical and mental condition to see how she is coping with the situation. Doctors will also help the mother establish a weight loss goal and advise her on achieving an ideal weight through proper nutrition and exercise.

Who Should Undergo and Expected Results?

A recently given birth woman must undergo a postpartum visit, even when she feels that she is doing fine and is not displaying any particular signs of mental fatigue or depression. In some cases, a woman may not show any visible symptoms or may deny having any symptoms at all. If her condition is not identified, there’s a possibility of worsening and becoming more difficult to treat later on.

A postpartum visit can last anywhere between 30 minutes to a couple of hours, depending on the doctor’s findings. If the doctor believes the mother will require further diagnosis or treatment, she will likely be asked to return for a follow-up consultation or be referred to a specialist.

How Does the Procedure Work?

Most postpartum visits begin with a short interview. The doctor will ask a few questions, such as how the mother is doing and feeling any symptoms. The purpose of the discussion is to identify any possible problems with the mother’s physical health and gauge her mental state. Doctors will be able to identify any mental fatigue and prescribe medications or provide advice on how she can deal with her condition without any medicines.

The doctor will then perform a physical exam. If the mother underwent an episiotomy during delivery, the incision would be checked to make sure that it is healing correctly. Patients delivered via C-section would typically undergo a medical checkup two weeks after delivery, but the doctor will also inspect the wound during a postpartum visit.

The physical exam will also include a pelvic exam to ensure that the uterus, cervix, and ovaries usually return to the pre-pregnancy state. The doctor will check for any signs of infections or request that the mother undergoes a pap smear if signs of abnormalities are present.

Doctors will also usually perform a breast exam during the postpartum visit. The breasts undergo a series of changes during pregnancy and after delivery. If the doctor discovers any abnormal changes, further tests will be requested so that the condition can be treated as early as possible.

The mother’s mental health is just as important as her physical health, which is why the doctor will check for any signs of depression. Suppose the doctor feels that the mother could be displaying signs of depression. In that case, she will likely need to be referred to specialists in postpartum depression or be asked to obtain the services of postpartum helpers, such as baby nurses. In some cases, the mother may simply be feeling overwhelmed by the situation, and a little help with the baby is all she needs.

Suppose the doctor does not discover any physical or mental abnormalities during the postpartum visit. In that case, the mother will be given the all-clear sign to return to normal daily activities, including exercises and sexual activities.

Possible Complications and Risks

A postpartum visit usually does not present any complications or risks, unless the doctor discovers any physical or mental abnormalities that will require further diagnosis and treatment. In this case, the complications and risks will be related to the actual exam or treatment regimen.

It’s essential to inform the doctor of any problems you may be experiencing during the postpartum visit, including issues at home that may be causing additional physical, mental, or emotional stress. No matter how small it may appear, any problem can affect a mother’s state of mind during the postpartum period. The doctor may be able to help with the problem or refer you to specialists who will provide sound advice on how to deal with your situation.

The most common postpartum problems that women experience during this period are:

• Infections include incision and kidney infections

• Swollen breasts

• Clogged ducts

• Vaginal discharge

• Hair loss

• Stretch marks

• Incontinence

• Discomfort during sex

• Reduced sex drive

• Postpartum hemorrhage resulting in excessive bleeding

If you experience any of the above problems, make sure that you inform your doctor during the postpartum visit. However, if the condition worsens and affects your daily activities, seek immediate medical attention.

You should also seek help if you begin to display signs of depression, which include intense feelings of sadness or if you’re having thoughts of suicide. Other symptoms of depression include no longer caring about your daily activities, friends, or responsibilities. You should seek immediate help if you have feelings of animosity towards the baby or other family members.

References:

• American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2010). Screening for depression during and after pregnancy. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 453. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.
• American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2008, reaffirmed 2009). Use of psychiatric medications during pregnancy and lactation. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 92. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 111(4): 1001-1020.